Applications that are driven by artificial intelligence and the processing of big data with quantum computers also impact industries positively.
How does a quantum computer work?
Quantum computer works with Qubits rather than bits
Quantum computers work differently from normal computers and supercomputers because they work with “qubits” – This is nothing more than a shortening of “quantum bits”.
Like a bit in a classic computer, a qubit can either be in the state  or .
It gets interesting, however, when the qubit shows its special property that the classic bit does not have:.
A qubit can be in state  and  at the same time or in theoretically an infinite number of states in between.
The best way to understand this is with a coin: If it should represent a classic bit, you can put it either head or tails up, that would be a  or a .
Quantum computers can process data faster
The qubits in a quantum computer can also be quantum entangled.
If a qubit is brought into a certain state, the state of the other qubits quantum entangled with it also changes at this moment.
This happens faster than the speed of light.
Since several qubits are quantum entangled with each other, i.e. their own state is dependent on that of the other qubits, therefore, the calculation in the quantum computer can also be performed faster than in light.
This is also an advantage of quantum computers over today’s computers.
Problems with the quantum computers
Qubits are extremely sensitive
Then the researchers struggle with the fact that the qubits are not stable.
Every smallest disturbance destroys their quantum state. They must therefore be shielded against vibrations, magnetic and electric fields, and all other possible external influences.
But no matter how well the researchers and engineers manage the shielding, qubits only remain stable for a fraction of a second.
The calculations must therefore be completed within this time.
In order to build really powerful and practical quantum computers, the researchers have to increase the number of qubits that work together and at the same time reduce their susceptibility to errors.
This is the only way to finish the calculations quickly before the qubits are out of control.
Quantum computers are still difficult to program
Since quantum computers work according to completely different principles than our computers today, programming has to be completely reinvented.
In quantum computers, a fundamental property of quantum physics comes into play.
Only when a qubit has been precisely measured can it be assigned to exactly one state.
When will quantum computers be in common use?
It was chosen so that it can be carried out particularly well by quantum computers.